Equihash

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Equihash is a memory-hard proof-of-work scheme. It solves a computational puzzle, best algorithms for which require certain computational and memory resources.

SPECKEY, denoted Ak.
Round function of SPARX-64/128

High Level View

  • Article: "Equihash: asymmetric proof-of-work based on the Generalized Birthday problem[1]
  • Authors: Alex Biryukov and Dmitry Khovratovich

Equihash is a family of proof-of-work schemes with three parameters n, k, and d, which determine the scheme Equihash-n/k/d and the time and memory complexity of the puzzle solver for it, and seed S, which makes every puzzle unique and solutions incompatible. The best algorithms for Equihash-n/k/d require O(2n/(k+1)+d) time and O(2n/(k+1)) memory, though implementations of this algorithms differ in both metrics, see below.

Strengths

Cryptanalysis

Here, we list the different cryptanalyses against the SPARX ciphers we are aware of, including those by its designers.

Instance Rounds Attack Authors
SPARX-64/128 24 15 rounds (Integral) Designers[2]
SPARX-128/128 32 22 rounds (Integral) Designers[2]
SPARX-128/256 40 24 rounds (Integral) Designers[2]

Resources

  • NDSS'16 paper: To appear
  • Eprint version: To appear
  • Bibtex entry: To appear
  • Presentation slides:
  • Reference implementation:
  • Optimized implementations: .

References

  1. Biryukov, A. and Khovratovich, D. (2016). Equihash: asymmetric proof-of-work based on the Generalized Birthday problem. In Network and Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS) 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named DPUVGB16